Medical Encyclopedia

abacavir

Commonly used brand name(s)

In the U.S.

  • Ziagen

Available Dosage Forms:

  • Tablet
  • Solution

Therapeutic Class: Antiretroviral Agent

Pharmacologic Class: Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor

Uses For abacavir

Abacavir is used together with other medicines to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. HIV is the virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Abacavir will not cure or prevent HIV infection or the symptoms of AIDS. It helps keep the HIV virus from reproducing, and appears to slow the destruction of the immune system. This may help delay the development of serious health problems that are usually related to AIDS or HIV infection. Abacavir will not keep you from spreading HIV to other people. People who receive abacavir may continue to have other problems related to AIDS or HIV infection.

abacavir is available only with your doctor’s prescription.

Before Using abacavir

In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For abacavir, the following should be considered:

Allergies

Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to abacavir or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully.

Pediatric

Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of abacavir in children younger than 3 months of age. Safety and efficacy have not been established.

Geriatric

Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated geriatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of abacavir in the elderly. However, elderly patients are more likely to have age-related liver, kidney, or heart problems, which may require caution and an adjustment in the dose for patients receiving abacavir.

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category Explanation
All Trimesters C Animal studies have shown an adverse effect and there are no adequate studies in pregnant women OR no animal studies have been conducted and there are no adequate studies in pregnant women.

Breast Feeding

There are no adequate studies in women for determining infant risk when using this medication during breastfeeding. Weigh the potential benefits against the potential risks before taking this medication while breastfeeding.

Interactions with Medicines

Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are taking abacavir, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.

Using abacavir with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some cases. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.

  • Orlistat
  • Ribavirin

Using abacavir with any of the following medicines may cause an increased risk of certain side effects, but using both drugs may be the best treatment for you. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.

  • Methadone
  • Tipranavir

Interactions with Food/Tobacco/Alcohol

Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur. Using alcohol or tobacco with certain medicines may also cause interactions to occur. Discuss with your healthcare professional the use of your medicine with food, alcohol, or tobacco.

Other Medical Problems

The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of abacavir. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:

  • Diabetes or
  • Heart disease or
  • Hyperlipidemia (high cholesterol or fats in the blood) or
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure)—Use with caution. May make these conditions worse.
  • Genetic condition (eg, gene variation called HLA-B*5701)—This condition may increase the risk for serious and life-threatening side effects.
  • Liver disease, mild—Use with caution. The effects may be increased because of slower removal of the medicine to the body.
  • Liver disease, moderate or severe—Should not be used in patients with this condition.

Proper Use of abacavir

Take abacavir exactly as directed by your doctor. Do not take more of it, do not take it more often, and do not take it for a longer time than your doctor ordered. Also, do not stop taking abacavir without checking first with your doctor.

abacavir will come with a Medication Guide. Read and follow these instructions carefully. Ask your doctor if you have any questions.

It is important to take abacavir together with other HIV medicines. Take all of the medicines your doctor prescribed at the right time of day. These medicines work best when there is a constant amount in the blood. To help keep the amount constant, do not miss any doses. If you need help with planning the best times to take your medicines, check with your doctor.

When your supply of abacavir runs low, get more from your pharmacy or from your doctor. The amount of virus in your blood may increase if the medicine is stopped, even for a short time. The virus may develop resistance to abacavir and be harder to treat.

You may take abacavir with or without food.

Measure the oral liquid with a marked measuring spoon, oral syringe, or medicine cup.

Dosing

The dose of abacavir will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor’s orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of abacavir. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.

The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.

  • For oral dosage forms (solution or tablets):
    • For HIV infection:
      • Adults—300 milligrams (mg) two times per day or 600 mg once per day.
      • Children 3 months of age and older—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your child’s doctor. The dose is usually 8 milligrams (mg) per kilogram (kg) of body weight two times per day, or 16 mg per kg of body weight once a day. Your doctor may increase your dose as needed. However, the dose is usually not more than 600 mg per day.
      • Children weighing 14 kilograms (kg) or more who can take tablets—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your child’s doctor. The dose is usually 300 to 600 mg per day, taken as a single dose once a day or in divided doses two times a day.
      • Children younger than 3 months of age—Use and dose must be determined by your child’s doctor.

Missed Dose

If you miss a dose of abacavir, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.

Storage

Keep out of the reach of children.

Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.

Ask your healthcare professional how you should dispose of any medicine you do not use.

Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.

SEE MORE:  Aase syndrome

You may also store the oral liquid in the refrigerator, but do not freeze it.

Precautions While Using abacavir

It is very important that your doctor check the progress of you or your child at regular visits to make sure that abacavir is working properly. Blood tests may be needed to check for unwanted effects.

Do not use abacavir if you are also using other medicines containing abacavir (eg, Epzicom®, Triumeq®, Trizivir®).

abacavir may cause severe allergic reactions in some patients. These reactions usually occur within 6 weeks after the medicine is started but may occur at any time. If untreated, it can lead to severe low blood pressure and even death. Check with your doctor immediately if you or your child notice sudden fever, skin rash, diarrhea, nausea, stomach pain, vomiting, or a feeling of unusual tiredness or illness, cough, trouble breathing, or sore throat.

When you begin taking abacavir, you or your child will be given a warning card which describes symptoms of severe allergic reactions that may be caused by abacavir. The warning card also provides information about how to treat these allergic reactions. For your safety, you should carry the warning card with you at all times.

Do not stop using abacavir unless your doctor tells you to do so. If you stop using abacavir for any reason, do not start taking it again without talking first to your doctor.

If you must stop using abacavir because of an allergic reaction, you should never use the medicine again. Return the unused medicine to your doctor or pharmacist. A worse reaction, possibly even death, can occur if you use the medicine again. Tell your doctor right away if you or your child have ever taken abacavir, especially if you have experienced an allergic reaction to it in the past.

Two rare but serious reactions to abacavir are lactic acidosis (too much acid in the blood) and liver toxicity. These are more common if you are female, very overweight (obese), or have been taking anti-HIV medicines for a long time. Call your doctor right away if you or your child have more than one of these symptoms: stomach discomfort or cramping, dark urine, decreased appetite, diarrhea, general feeling of discomfort, light-colored stools, muscle cramping or pain, nausea, unusual tiredness or weakness, trouble breathing, vomiting, or yellow eyes or skin.

When you start taking HIV medicines, your immune system may get stronger. If you or your child have certain infections that are hidden in your body, such as pneumonia or tuberculosis, you may notice new symptoms when your body tries to fight them. Tell your doctor right away if you or your child notice any changes in health.

abacavir may cause you to have excess body fat. Tell your doctor if you or your child notice changes in your body shape, such as an increased amount of fat in the upper back and neck, or around the chest and stomach area, or a loss of fat from the legs, arms, and face.

abacavir may increase your risk of having a heart attack. This is more likely to occur if you smoke or already have heart disease, high blood pressure, or high cholesterol or fats in the blood. Call your doctor right away if you have chest pain or discomfort, nausea, pain or discomfort in the arms, jaw, back or neck, trouble breathing, sweating, or vomiting. These could be symptoms of a heart attack.

abacavir will not keep you from giving HIV to your partner during sex. Make sure you understand and practice safe sex, such as using latex condoms, even if your partner also has HIV. Do not share needles, toothbrushes, and razor blades with anyone.

Do not take other medicines unless they have been discussed with your doctor. This includes prescription or nonprescription (over-the-counter [OTC]) medicines and herbal or vitamin supplements.

abacavir Side Effects

Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.

Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur:

Less common

  • Abdominal or stomach pain
  • cough
  • diarrhea
  • difficult or labored breathing
  • fever
  • headache
  • joint or muscle pain
  • nausea
  • numbness or tingling of the hands, feet, or face
  • redness and soreness of the eyes
  • skin rash
  • sore throat
  • sores in the mouth
  • swelling of the feet or lower legs
  • unusual feeling of discomfort or illness
  • unusual tiredness
  • vomiting

Rare

  • Abdominal or stomach swelling
  • decreased appetite
  • fast, shallow breathing
  • sleepiness

Incidence not known

  • Blistering, peeling, or loosening of the skin
  • chest pain or discomfort
  • chills
  • dark urine
  • itching
  • light-colored stools
  • pain or discomfort in the arms, jaw, back, or neck
  • red, irritated eyes
  • red skin lesions, often with a purple center
  • sores, ulcers, or white spots in the mouth or on the lips
  • sweating
  • unusual weakness
  • upper right abdominal or stomach pain
  • yellow eyes and skin

Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:

More common

  • Headache

Less common

  • Trouble sleeping

Incidence not known

  • Breast enlargement
  • buffalo hump
  • central obesity
  • facial wasting
  • gaining weight around your neck, upper back, breast, face, or waist
  • peripheral wasting

Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

The information contained in the Truven Health Micromedex products as delivered by Drugs.com is intended as an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatment. It is not a substitute for a medical exam, nor does it replace the need for services provided by medical professionals. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before taking any prescription or over the counter drugs (including any herbal medicines or supplements) or following any treatment or regimen. Only your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist can provide you with advice on what is safe and effective for you.

The use of the Truven Health products is at your sole risk. These products are provided “AS IS” and “as available” for use, without warranties of any kind, either express or implied. Truven Health and Drugs.com make no representation or warranty as to the accuracy, reliability, timeliness, usefulness or completeness of any of the information contained in the products. Additionally, TRUVEN HEALTH MAKES NO REPRESENTATION OR WARRANTIES AS TO THE OPINIONS OR OTHER SERVICE OR DATA YOU MAY ACCESS, DOWNLOAD OR USE AS A RESULT OF USE OF THE THOMSON REUTERS HEALTHCARE PRODUCTS. ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE ARE HEREBY EXCLUDED. Truven Health does not assume any responsibility or risk for your use of the Truven Health products.

In Summary

Commonly reported side effects of abacavir include: arthralgia, cough, fatigue, lethargy, myalgia, pruritus, vomiting, chills, and malaise. Other side effects include: hypersensitivity, pharyngitis, and tachypnea. See below for a comprehensive list of adverse effects.

For the Consumer

Applies to abacavir: oral solution, oral tablet

In addition to its needed effects, some unwanted effects may be caused by abacavir. In the event that any of these side effects do occur, they may require medical attention.

Major Side Effects

You should check with your doctor immediately if any of these side effects occur when taking abacavir:

SEE MORE:  5 Fat-Burning Body Weight Exercises

Less common:

  • Abdominal or stomach pain
  • cough
  • diarrhea
  • difficult or labored breathing
  • fever
  • headache
  • joint or muscle pain
  • nausea
  • numbness or tingling of the hands, feet, or face
  • redness and soreness of the eyes
  • skin rash
  • sore throat
  • sores in the mouth
  • swelling of the feet or lower legs
  • unusual feeling of discomfort or illness
  • unusual tiredness
  • vomiting

Rare

  • Abdominal or stomach swelling
  • decreased appetite
  • fast, shallow breathing
  • sleepiness

Incidence not known:

  • Blistering, peeling, or loosening of the skin
  • chest pain or discomfort
  • chills
  • dark urine
  • itching
  • light-colored stools
  • pain or discomfort in the arms, jaw, back, or neck
  • red, irritated eyes
  • red skin lesions, often with a purple center
  • sores, ulcers, or white spots in the mouth or on the lips
  • sweating
  • unusual weakness
  • upper right abdominal or stomach pain
  • yellow eyes and skin

Minor Side Effects

Some of the side effects that can occur with abacavir may not need medical attention. As your body adjusts to the medicine during treatment these side effects may go away. Your health care professional may also be able to tell you about ways to reduce or prevent some of these side effects. If any of the following side effects continue, are bothersome or if you have any questions about them, check with your health care professional:

More common:

  • Headache

Less common:

  • Trouble sleeping

Incidence not known:

  • Breast enlargement
  • buffalo hump
  • central obesity
  • facial wasting
  • gaining weight around your neck, upper back, breast, face, or waist
  • peripheral wasting

For Healthcare Professionals

Applies to abacavir: oral solution, oral tablet

General

In 1 study, patients receiving the once-daily regimen had a significantly higher incidence of severe drug hypersensitivity reactions and severe diarrhea than patients on the twice-daily regimen.

Many of the side effects listed occurred commonly in patients with abacavir hypersensitivity (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, lethargy, rash).[Ref]

Hypersensitivity

Common (1% to 10%): Drug hypersensitivity, hypersensitivity reaction (including fever, rash [maculopapular, urticarial], nausea, vomiting, malaise, diarrhea, headache, fatigue, myalgia, achiness, abdominal pain, pharyngitis, dyspnea, cough, lethargy, myolysis, edema, elevated liver function tests, mucous membrane lesions [conjunctivitis, mouth ulceration], sore throat, adult respiratory distress syndrome, respiratory failure, lymphadenopathy, hypotension, anaphylaxis, paresthesia, lymphopenia, hepatitis, liver failure, arthralgia, elevated creatine phosphokinase, elevated creatinine, renal failure, erythema multiforme, abnormal chest x-ray findings [mainly localized infiltrates], death)
Frequency not reported: Serious and sometimes fatal hypersensitivity reactions, abacavir hypersensitivity reaction presenting as acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia[Ref]

Serious and sometimes fatal hypersensitivity reactions have been reported with this drug. Such reactions have included multi-organ failure and anaphylaxis and usually occurred within the first 6 weeks of therapy (median onset: 9 to 11 days); however, abacavir hypersensitivity reactions have occurred any time during therapy.

Patients with the human leukocyte antigen subtype B*5701 (HLA-B*5701) allele are at higher risk of hypersensitivity reactions to this drug; however, such reactions have occurred in patients without the HLA-B*5701 allele. Abacavir hypersensitivity was reported in about 8% of patients in 9 clinical trials with abacavir-containing products where patients were not screened for the HLA-B*5701 allele; incidence of suspected abacavir hypersensitivity reactions was 1% in clinical trials where HLA-B*5701 carriers were excluded.

Abacavir hypersensitivity reactions have been characterized by at least 2 of the following key signs/symptoms: (1) fever; (2) rash; (3) gastrointestinal symptoms (including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain); (4) constitutional symptoms (including generalized malaise, fatigue, achiness); (5) respiratory symptoms (including dyspnea, cough, pharyngitis). Almost all reactions have included fever and/or rash (usually maculopapular or urticarial); however, reactions also reported without fever or rash. Signs/symptoms reported in at least 10% of patients with hypersensitivity reaction have included rash, nausea, vomiting, malaise, diarrhea, headache, fatigue/lethargy, abdominal pain, dyspnea, cough, fever, elevated liver function tests, and myalgia. Other signs/symptoms of hypersensitivity have included mouth ulceration, sore throat, adult respiratory distress syndrome, respiratory failure, edema, lymphadenopathy, hypotension, conjunctivitis, anaphylaxis, paresthesia, lymphopenia, hepatitis, liver failure, myolysis, arthralgia, elevated creatine phosphokinase, elevated creatinine, renal failure, abnormal chest x-ray findings (mainly infiltrates, which were localized), and death.

Symptoms of abacavir hypersensitivity reaction worsened with continued therapy and generally resolved when this drug was discontinued. Restarting this drug after a hypersensitivity reaction has resulted in more severe symptoms within hours and included life-threatening hypotension and death. Rarely, life-threatening reactions have occurred within hours after restarting this drug in patients who stopped it for reasons other than symptoms of hypersensitivity (or who stopped it with only 1 key symptom of hypersensitivity).

In 1 case report, a 57-year-old HIV-positive male presented to medical attention with a 2-day history of fever, malaise, and diarrhea related to initiation of this drug. Six days prior to the onset of symptoms, the patient’s antiretroviral therapy was switched from efavirenz and lamivudine-zidovudine to zidovudine, abacavir, and lopinavir-ritonavir after a drop in his CD4 cell count. The patient developed acute dyspnea and severe hypoxemia, hemoptysis, and diffuse bilateral pulmonary infiltrates within 72 hours of admission and this drug was discontinued due to suspicion of a hypersensitivity reaction. Three days after drug discontinuation, the patient’s status improved and chest films showed resolution of infiltrates.[Ref]

Gastrointestinal

Pancreatitis was observed in the expanded access program.[Ref]

Very common (10% or more): Nausea (up to 47%), nausea and vomiting (up to 38%), diarrhea (up to 16%)
Common (1% to 10%): Abdominal pain/gastritis/gastrointestinal signs and symptoms, vomiting, abdominal discomfort and pain, abnormal amylase
Rare (0.01% to 0.1%): Pancreatitis[Ref]

Other

Very common (10% or more): Malaise and fatigue (up to 34%), temperature regulation disturbance (up to 19%)
Common (1% to 10%): Fever/pyrexia, lethargy, fatigue, fatigue/malaise, fever and/or chills
Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Non-site-specific pain
Frequency not reported: Asthenia, reduced alcohol tolerance, disulfiram-like reaction[Ref]

In 1 case report, a 31-year-old HIV-infected male patient switched to this drug and experienced a disulfiram-like reaction with nausea, facial flushing, and tachycardia after alcohol consumption. When the patient was rechallenged with a shot of vodka, the same reaction occurred.

In another case, a 27-year-old HIV-infected male patient switched to this drug and noticed reduced alcohol tolerance. The patient reported that he felt as if he had ingested 1.5 bottles of wine after 3 glasses, with loss of memory until the next morning and vomiting. The patient was able to tolerate small quantities of alcohol or alcohol consumed with food.[Ref]

Nervous system

Very common (10% or more): Headache (up to 31%)
Common (1% to 10%): Headaches/migraine, dizziness, neuropathy[Ref]

Respiratory

Very common (10% or more): Cough (up to 24%), ear/nose/throat infections (up to 19%), nasal signs/symptoms (up to 11%)
Common (1% to 10%): Viral respiratory infections (including viral ear, nose, and throat infection), bronchitis
Frequency not reported: Tachypnea, pharyngitis[Ref]

Musculoskeletal

Elevated creatine phosphokinase (greater than 4 times the upper limit of normal [4 x ULN]) has been reported in up to 8% of patients.[Ref]

Very common (10% or more): Elevated creatine phosphokinase (up to 12%)
Common (1% to 10%): Musculoskeletal pain

Combination antiretroviral therapy:
-Frequency not reported: Osteonecrosis[Ref]

Dermatologic

Very common (10% or more): Skin rashes (maculopapular, urticarial, or variable appearance; up to 11%)
Common (1% to 10%): Rash (without systemic symptoms)
Frequency not reported: Sweet’s syndrome
Very rare (less than 0.01%): Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme[Ref]

Suspected Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) have been reported during postmarketing experience in patients using this drug primarily in combination with agents known to be associated with SJS and TEN, respectively.

Cases of erythema multiforme, SJS, or TEN have been reported very rarely when abacavir hypersensitivity could not be ruled out.[Ref]

SEE MORE:  Alfalfa

Metabolic

Very common (10% or more): Feeding problems (up to 11%)
Common (1% to 10%): Hypertriglyceridemia, hyperamylasemia, anorexia, abnormal triglycerides, hyperlactatemia
Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Hyperglycemia, abnormal alkaline phosphatase, abnormal glucose, abnormal sodium
Rare (0.01% to 0.1%): Lactic acidosis
Frequency not reported: Mild elevations of blood glucose, hypoglycemia, loss of appetite
Postmarketing reports: Redistribution/accumulation of body fat (including central obesity, dorsocervical fat enlargement, peripheral wasting, facial wasting, breast enlargement, “cushingoid appearance”)

Combination antiretroviral therapy:
-Frequency not reported: Metabolic abnormalities (e.g., hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hyperlactatemia)[Ref]

Hypertriglyceridemia (greater than 750 mg/dL), hyperamylasemia (greater than 2 x ULN), and hyperglycemia (greater than 13.9 mmol/L) have been reported in up to 6%, up to 4%, and less than 1% of patients, respectively.

Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis (including fatal cases) have been reported with the use of nucleoside analogs.[Ref]

Psychiatric

Very common (10% or more): Dreams/sleep disorders (10%)
Common (1% to 10%): Depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, insomnia, abnormal dreams
Frequency not reported: Mania, worsening of preexisting depression, lethargy[Ref]

Hepatic

Common (1% to 10%): Elevated ALT, elevated AST
Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Abnormal bilirubin
Frequency not reported: Increased GGT, severe hepatomegaly with steatosis
Postmarketing reports: Hepatic steatosis

Elevated ALT (greater than 5 x ULN) and AST (greater than 5 x ULN) have been reported in 6% and up to 6% of patients, respectively.

The reported frequencies were similar to those observed during clinical trials with zidovudine and lamivudine administration.

Increased GGT was observed in the expanded access program.

Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis (including fatal cases) have been reported with the use of nucleoside analogs.

Hematologic

Neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count less than 750/mm3), thrombocytopenia (platelets less than 50,000/mm3), anemia (hemoglobin 6.9 g/dL or less), and leukopenia (WBC 1500/mm3 or less) have been reported in up to 5%, 1%, less than 1%, and less than 1% of patients, respectively.

The reported frequencies were similar to those observed during clinical trials with zidovudine and lamivudine administration.

Agranulocytosis has been reported after the addition of this drug to a multi-drug regimen.

Common (1% to 10%): Neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, decreased white cells, abnormal absolute neutrophils
Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Anemia, leukopenia, abnormal hemoglobin, abnormal platelets, abnormal WBC
Rare (less than 0.1%): Eosinophilia
Frequency not reported: Agranulocytosis, increased platelet reactivity

Renal

Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Renal signs/symptoms, abnormal creatinine
Frequency not reported: Acute renal failure, interstitial nephritis

Immunologic

Frequency not reported: Immune reconstitution/reactivation syndrome, autoimmune disorders in the setting of immune reconstitution (e.g., Graves’ disease, polymyositis, Guillain-Barre syndrome)

Cardiovascular

An observational study investigating the rate of MI in patients on combination antiretroviral therapy showed an increased risk of MI with the use of this drug within the previous 6 months. A sponsor-conducted pooled analysis of clinical trials showed no excess risk of MI in abacavir-treated patients as compared with control subjects. Overall, available data from the observational cohort and from clinical trials were inconclusive.[Ref]

Frequency not reported: Endothelial dysfunction, peripheral arterial disease, coronary bypass surgery, ischemic stroke, deep venous thrombosis, angina, transient ischemic attack
Postmarketing reports: Myocardial infarction (MI)

Showing references relevant to chosen section.

2. Warnke D, Barreto J, Temesgen Z “Antiretroviral drugs.” J Clin Pharmacol 47 (2007): 1570-9

4. Calza L, Dentale N, Piergentili B, et al. “Abacavir-induced febrile agranulocytosis and anaemia.” AIDS 22 (2008): 2221-2

6. Piacenti FJ “An update and review of antiretroviral therapy.” Pharmacotherapy 26 (2006): 1111-33

8. Bart PA, Rizzardi GP, Tambussi G, Chave JP, Chapuis AG, Graziois C, Corpataux JM, Halkic N, Meuwly JY, Munoz M, Meylan P, “Immunological and virological responses in HIV-1-infected adults at early stage of established infection treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy.” Aids 14 (2000): 1887-97

9. “Product Information. Ziagen (abacavir).” Glaxo Wellcome, Research Triangle Pk, NC.

10. Peyriere H, Dereure O, Breton H, et al. “Variability in the clinical pattern of cutaneous side-effects of drugs with systemic symptoms: does a DRESS syndrome really exist?” Br J Dermatol 155 (2006): 422-8

11. Hetherington S, McGuirk S, Powell G, et al. “Hypersensitivity reactions during therapy with the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor abacavir.” Clin Ther 23 (2001): 1603-14

12. Waters LJ, Mandalia S, Gazzard B, Nelson M “Prospective HLA-B*5701 screening and abacavir hypersensitivity: a single centre experience.” AIDS 21 (2007): 2533-2534

13. “Drugs for HIV infection.” Med Lett Drugs Ther 43 (2001): 103-8

14. Cutrell AG, Hernandez JE, Fleming JW, et al. “Updated clinical risk factor analysis of suspected hypersensitivity reactions to abacavir.” Ann Pharmacother 38 (2004): 2171-2

 

15. Abel S, Paturel L, Cabie A “Abacavir hypersensitivity.” N Engl J Med 358 (2008): 2515; author reply 2515-6

16. Fox J, Newton P, Daly R, et al. “An unusual abacavir reaction.” AIDS 22 (2008): 1520-2

17. Phillips EJ “Genetic screening to prevent abacavir hypersensitivity reaction: are we there yet?” Clin Infect Dis 43 (2006): 103-5

18. “Drugs for HIV infection.” Treat Guidel Med Lett 7 (2009): 11-22

19. Yokogawa N, Alcid DV “Acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia as a rare presentation of abacavir hypersensitivity reaction.” AIDS 21 (2007): 2116-2117

20. Strategies for Management of Anti-RetroviralTherapy/Insight; DAD Study Groups “Use of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-infected patients.” AIDS 22 (2008): F17-F24

21. Goedken AM, Herman RA “Once-daily abacavir in place of twice-daily administration.” Ann Pharmacother 39 (2005): 1302-8

22. de Perio MA, Gomez FJ, Frame PT, Fichtenbaum CJ “A truvada hypersensitivity reaction simulating abacavir hypersensitivity.” AIDS 21 (2007): 2252-3

23. Toerner JG, Cvetkovich T “Kawasaki-like Syndrome: Abacavir Hypersensitivity?” Clin Infect Dis 34 (2002): 131-2

24. Borras-Blasco J, Navarro-Ruiz A, Borras C, Castera E “Adverse cutaneous reactions associated with the newest antiretroviral drugs in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.” J Antimicrob Chemother 62 (2008): 879-88

25. Bonta PI, Vermeulen JN, Speelman P, Prins JM “Severe abacavir hypersensitivity reaction in a patient tested HLA-B*5701 negative.” AIDS 22 (2008): 1522-3

26. Herring SJ, Krieger AC “Acute respiratory manifestations of the abacavir hypersensitivity reaction.” AIDS 20 (2006): 301-2

27. Chen SJ, Yang SP, Hung CC, Fung CP “Abacavir-induced agranulocytosis in two Taiwanese patients tested HLA-B*5701-negative.” AIDS 24 (2010): 1238-9

28. Bergersen BM “Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with HIV Infection : Impact of Antiretroviral Therapy.” Drugs 66 (2006): 1971-87

29. Hervey PS, Perry CM “Abacavir – A review of its clinical potential in patients with HIV infection.” Drugs 60 (2000): 447-79

30. Fontaine C, Guiard-Schmid JB, Slama L, et al. “Severe rhabdomyolysis during a hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir in a patient treated with ciprofibrate.” AIDS 19 (2005): 1927-8

31. Tozzi V “Pharmacogenetics of antiretrovirals.” Antiviral Res 85 (2010): 190-200

32. Hughes CA, Foisy MM, Dewhurst N, et al. “Abacavir hypersensitivity reaction: an update.” Ann Pharmacother 42 (2008): 387-96

33. Yuen GJ, Weller S, Pakes GE “A Review of the Pharmacokinetics of Abacavir.” Clin Pharmacokinet 47 (2008): 351-371

34. Anderson PL “Pharmacologic perspectives for once-daily antiretroviral therapy.” Ann Pharmacother 38 (2004): 1969-70

35. Loeliger AE, Steel H, McGuirk S, Powell WS, Hetherington SV “The abacavir hypersensitivity reaction and interruptions in therapy.” Aids 15 (2001): 1325

36. Rauch A, Nolan D, Martin A, McKinnon E, Almeida C, Mallal S “Prospective genetic screening decreases the incidence of abacavir hypersensitivity reactions in the Western Australian HIV cohort study.” Clin Infect Dis 43 (2006): 99-102

37. Stekler J, Maenza J, Stevens C, et al. “Abacavir hypersensitivity reaction in primary HIV infection.” AIDS 20 (2006): 1269-74

38. Vandekerckhove L, Blot S “Abacavir hypersensitivity.” N Engl J Med 358 (2008): 2514-5; author reply 2515-6

39. Hammer SM, Saag MS, Schechter M, et al. “Treatment for adult HIV infection: 2006 recommendations of the International AIDS Society-USA panel.” JAMA 296 (2006): 827-43

Not all side effects for abacavir may be reported. You should always consult a doctor or healthcare professional for medical advice. Side effects can be reported to the FDA here.

Tags


Shein.com INT

July 2017
M T W T F S S
« May    
 12
3456789
10111213141516
17181920212223
24252627282930
31  


tittygram INT


Aviasales.ru