MEDICATION SAFETY ISSUES
Aliskiren may be confused with Aliseum which is a brand name for diazepam in Italy
U.S. BRAND NAMES — Tekturna®
DOSING: ADULTS — Hypertension: Initial: 150 mg once daily; may increase to 300 mg once daily (maximum: 300 mg/day). Note: Prior to initiation, correct hypovolemia and/or closely monitor volume status in patients on concurrent diuretics during treatment initiation.
DOSING: PEDIATRIC — Children <18 years: Dosage not established.
DOSING: ELDERLY — Refer to adult dosing. No initial dosage adjustment required.
DOSING: RENAL IMPAIRMENT
Mild-to-moderate impairment [GFR >30 mL/minute and/or Scr <1.7 mg/dL (women); Scr <2 mg/dL (men)]: No dose adjustment required Severe impairment [GFR<30>1.7 mg/dL (women); Scr >2 mg/dL (men)]: Use caution; not studied in severe renal impairment
DOSING: HEPATIC IMPAIRMENT — No dosage adjustment required.
DOSAGE FORMS — Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.
Tekturna®: 150 mg, 300 mg
DOSAGE FORMS: CONCISE
Tekturna®: 150 mg, 300 mg
GENERIC EQUIVALENT AVAILABLE — No
ADMINISTRATION — Administer at the same time daily; may take with or without a meal, but consistent administration with regards to meals is recommended. Avoid taking with high-fat meals.
USE — Treatment of hypertension, alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents
USE – UNLABELED / INVESTIGATIONAL — Treatment of persistent proteinuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and nephropathy despite administration of optimized recommended renoprotective therapy (eg, angiotensin II receptor blocker)
ADVERSE REACTIONS SIGNIFICANT
1% to 10%:
Central nervous system: Dizziness (2%)
Dermatologic: Rash (1%)
Endocrine & metabolic: Hyperkalemia (monotherapy ≤ 1%; concurrent with ACE inhibitor in patients with diabetes 6%)
Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea (1% to 2%)
Hematologic: Creatine kinase increased (>300%: 1%)
Renal: BUN increased (≤ 7%), serum creatinine increased (≤ 7%)
Respiratory: Cough (1%)
<1% (Limited to important or life-threatening): Abdominal pain, anemia, angina, angioedema, dyspepsia, gastroesophageal reflux, gout, hypotension (severe), myositis, renal stone formation, rhabdomyolysis, seizure, uric acid increased
U.S. labeling: There are no contraindications listed in manufacturer’s labeling.
Canada labeling: Hypersensitivity to aliskiren or any component of the formulation
WARNINGS / PRECAUTIONS
Boxed warnings: Pregnancy: See “Special populations” below.
Concerns related to adverse effects: Angioedema: Since the effect of aliskiren on bradykinin levels is unknown, the risk of kinin-mediated etiologies of angioedema occurring is also unknown. Use caution in any patient with a history of angioedema (of any etiology) as angioedema has been observed (rarely) with aliskiren use. Discontinue immediately following any signs and symptoms of angioedema. Prolonged frequent monitoring may be required especially if tongue, glottis, or larynx are involved as they are associated with airway obstruction. Patients with a history of airway surgery may have a higher risk of airway obstruction. Aggressive early and appropriate management is critical. Hyperkalemia: May occur (rarely) during monotherapy; risk may increase in patients with predisposing factors (eg, renal dysfunction, diabetes mellitus or concomitant use with ACE inhibitors, potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements, and/or potassium-containing salts). Hypotension: During the initiation of therapy, symptomatic hypotension may occur (rarely), particularly in patients with an activated renin-angiotensin system (ie, volume or salt-depleted patients)
Disease-related concerns: Renal impairment: Use with caution in patients with severe renal impairment; not studied in patients with severe renal impairment [GFR <30>1.7 mg/dL (women); Scr >2 mg/dL (men)], history of dialysis, nephrotic syndrome, or renovascular hypertension. Use with caution or avoid in patients with deteriorating renal function or renal artery stenosis (bilateral or unilateral).
Concurrent drug therapy issues: High potential for interactions: Use caution in patients taking strong inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (eg, cyclosporine).
Special populations: Pediatrics: Safety and efficacy have not been established in children. Pregnancy: [U.S. Boxed Warning]: Based on human data, drugs that act on the angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus when used in the second and third trimesters. Aliskiren should be discontinued as soon as possible once pregnancy is detected.
METABOLISM / TRANSPORT EFFECTS — Substrate of CYP3A4 (minor)
Amifostine: Antihypertensives may enhance the hypotensive effect of Amifostine. Management: When amifostine is used at chemotherapy doses, antihypertensive medications should be withheld for 24 hours prior to amifostine administration. If antihypertensive therapy can not be withheld, amifostine should not be administered. Risk D: Consider therapy modification
Antihypertensives: May enhance the hypotensive effect of other Antihypertensives. Risk C: Monitor therapy
Atorvastatin: May increase the serum concentration of Aliskiren. Risk C: Monitor therapy
CycloSPORINE: May increase the serum concentration of Aliskiren. Risk X: Avoid combination
Diazoxide: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Antihypertensives. Risk C: Monitor therapy
Furosemide: Aliskiren may decrease the serum concentration of Furosemide. Risk C: Monitor therapy
Herbs (Hypertensive Properties): May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensives. Risk C: Monitor therapy
Herbs (Hypotensive Properties): May enhance the hypotensive effect of Antihypertensives. Risk C: Monitor therapy
Ketoconazole: May increase the serum concentration of Aliskiren. Risk C: Monitor therapy
MAO Inhibitors: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Antihypertensives. MAO Inhibitors may enhance the orthostatic effect of Antihypertensives. Risk C: Monitor therapy
Methylphenidate: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensives. Risk C: Monitor therapy
Pentoxifylline: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Antihypertensives. Risk C: Monitor therapy
P-Glycoprotein Inducers: May decrease the serum concentration of P-Glycoprotein Substrates. P-glycoprotein inducers may also further limit the distribution of p-glycoprotein substrates to specific cells/tissues/organs where p-glycoprotein is present in large amounts (e.g., brain, T-lymphocytes, testes, etc.). Risk C: Monitor therapy
P-Glycoprotein Inhibitors: May increase the serum concentration of P-Glycoprotein Substrates. P-glycoprotein inhibitors may also enhance the distribution of p-glycoprotein substrates to specific cells/tissues/organs where p-glycoprotein is present in large amounts (e.g., brain, T-lymphocytes, testes, etc.). Risk C: Monitor therapy
Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors: May enhance the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensives. Risk C: Monitor therapy
Prostacyclin Analogues: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Antihypertensives. Risk C: Monitor therapy
RiTUXimab: Antihypertensives may enhance the hypotensive effect of RiTUXimab. Risk D: Consider therapy modification
Yohimbine: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensives. Risk C: Monitor therapy
ETHANOL / NUTRITION / HERB INTERACTIONS — Food: High-fat meals decrease absorption.
FACTOR — C (show table) (1st trimester); D (2nd and 3rd trimesters)
PREGNANCY IMPLICATIONS — Medications which act on the renin-angiotensin system are reported to have the following fetal/neonatal effects: Hypotension, neonatal skull hypoplasia, anuria, renal failure, and death; oligohydramnios is also reported. These effects are reported to occur with exposure during the second and third trimesters. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. [U.S. Boxed Warning]: Based on human data, drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus when used in the second and third trimesters. Aliskiren should be discontinued as soon as possible once pregnancy is detected.
LACTATION — Excretion in breast milk unknown/not recommended
DIETARY CONSIDERATIONS — May be taken with or without food; however, a high-fat meal reduces absorption
PRICING — (data from drugstore.com)
150 mg (30): $82.38
300 mg (30): $101.80
MONITORING PARAMETERS — Blood pressure; serum potassium, BUN, serum creatinine
CANADIAN BRAND NAMES — Rasilez®
INTERNATIONAL BRAND NAMES — Enviage (EE); Rasilez (BE, CH, CZ, DE, DK, EE, GB, ID, IE, IL, NO, PE, PH, SE); Tekturna (EE)
MECHANISM OF ACTION — Aliskerin is a direct renin inhibitor, resulting in blockade of the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I. Angiotensin I suppression decreases the formation of angiotensin II (Ang II), a potent blood pressure-elevating peptide (via direct vasoconstriction, aldosterone release, and sodium retention). Ang II also functions within the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS) as a negative inhibitory feedback mediator within the renal parenchyma to suppress the further release of renin. Thus, reductions in Ang II levels suppress this feedback loop, leading to further increased plasma renin concentrations (PRC) and subsequent activity (PRA). This disinhibition effect can be potentially problematic for ACE inhibitor and ARB therapy, as increased PRA could partially overcome the pharmacologic inhibition of the RAAS. As aliskiren is a direct inhibitor of renin activity, blunting of PRA despite the increased PRC (from loss of the negative feedback) may be clinically advantageous. The effect of aliskiren on bradykinin levels is unknown.
PHARMACODYNAMICS / KINETICS
Onset of action: Maximum antihypertensive effect: Within 2 weeks
Absorption: Poor; absorption decreased by high-fat meal. Aliskiren is a substrate of P-glycoprotein; concurrent use of P-glycoprotein inhibitors may increase absorption.
Metabolism: Extent of metabolism unknown; in vitro studies indicate metabolism via CYP3A4
Half-life elimination: ~24 hours (range: 16-32 hours)
Time to peak, plasma: 1-3 hours
Excretion: Urine (~25% of absorbed dose excreted unchanged in urine); feces (unchanged via biliary excretion)